Acetate — A manufactured fiber made of spruce and pine cellulose. Resembles silk in color and drapability. Resists fading. Not as strong as Rayon. Resists shrinking, moths, mildew.
Acrylic — A manufactured fiber made up of synthetic polymers. A strong fiber, wears well, resists fading. Holds up to laundering. Wool like in feel, soft. Resistant to moths, sunlight, oil, and chemicals.
Brocade — A woven fabric with a raised pattern that resembles embroidery.
Calendering — Calendering refers to an ironing process that produces a smooth, glossy surface. This sheen is not always permanent after cleaning.
Chenille — Chenille was developed from a technique called candlewicking in which tufts of cotton were arranged on a cotton ground cloth at various intervals to form elaborate patterns. Today the technique applies the tufts in long continuous lines instead of intervals by machine. The term chenille applies to the yarn which can be made of cotton, silk, wool, or manufactured fibers which are woven and then cut lengthwise. The chenille strips are then woven into the fabric.
Chintz — Chintz is a glaze made of resins that is baked on the surface of a plain woven cotton fabric giving it a glossy sheen. This sheen is not always permanent after cleaning.
Cotton — A natural fiber made from the fibrous material surrounding the cotton seed. A very versatile fiber that is used either alone or in blends with other fibers. Cotton is a very elastic fiber that withstands laundering, accepts dyes readily, and “breathes” easily making it popular for apparel.
Damask — Done on a Jacquard loom, damask refers to “area patterning”; i.e., the pattern becomes visible by the contrast between the lusters of the warp and weft weave. Damasks are generally very traditional in design.
Duck – Duck refers to a heavy, plain woven cotton fabric.
Flock — Flock is the application of fibers to an adhesive coated surface. The design is not woven, but glued to the ground cloth.
Jacquard — Jacquard is the name of a complex and intricate weaving process done on a power loom. Developed by Joseph Jacquard in 1801, this loom revolutionized the textile industry’s ability to produce woven tapestry designs.
Knit — Refers to the construction of fabric by interlocking loops of one or more yarns. Once very popular, not seen as much in today’s textiles.
Linen – Linen is a vegetable fiber from the flax plant. One of the oldest textile fabrics, it is a very strong and soft fiber that, when dyed, resists fading in sunlight.
Mohair — Mohair is wool from the angora goat. A very durable fiber that shrinks less than other wools. Considered a specialty fiber, Mohair must be certified by the International Mohair Association.
Moiré — Moiré is characterized by a wavy or watermarked effect on the fabric.This effect can be woven into the fabric or, more commonly, applied by a heat process. The heat process is not always permanent through laundering.
Nylon — A manufactured fiber of synthetic polymers made from petroleum and natural gas, Nylon is very strong, abrasive resistant, lustrous, and easy to clean. It resists damage from oil and many chemicals. A resilient fiber that is low in moisture absorbancy.
Olefin — A manufactured fiber of synthetic polymers made from ethylene and propylene petroleum products, Olefin resists abrasion, chemicals, mildew, rot and weather. Sensitive to heat, soil resistant, strong, and very lightweight, Olefin is also very colorfast.
Polyester — A manufactured fiber derived from coal, air, water, and petroleum. Polyester is very strong, resists stretching and shrinking, resistant to most chemicals, wrinkles, and abrasion. Polyester retains heat set creases and is very easy to clean.
Print — Refers to the surface application of designs or patterns by hand or machine to a ground cloth, usually a cotton or cotton blend fabric.
Rayon — A manufactured fiber of cellulose. Originally developed to resemble silk in 1884. First produced in the U.S. in 1910, Rayon is a very lustrous fiber with a wonderful sheen and hand.
Repeat — Repeat refers to the size or dimension of the fabric’s pattern - this is the measure of one complete pattern cycle.
Silk — Made from the cocoons of certain species of caterpillars, Silk originated in China over 3,000 years ago. Noted for its softness and brilliant sheen, silk is a very fine, resilient fiber and incredibly strong. Silk will fade in sunlight. “Dupioni” refers to a silk woven with slight variations in the texture.
Toile — Toile refers to fabrics with classic floral or scenic designs usually done on cotton, linen, or silk.
Velvet — Velvet refers to a pile fabric created in either of two possible constructions:
1) Weaving two cloths face to face with separate pile threads joining them, then cutting them apart creating two fabrics.
2) Cutting wires are inserted into the weft and are cut as they are withdrawn.
Warp — Warp refers to the yarns that run lengthwise on the loom.
Weft — Weft refers to the yarns that run crosswise at right angles to the warp threads.
Wool — A natural fiber made from the fleece of various animals - sheep, goats, camels, llamas, and alpacas. Naturally resistant to dirt, flame, and static electricity